The Hobbit

Tolkien Sessions at IMC Leeds, July 2017

imc_postcard_2017_front_1*Update – June 2017

I am very pleased to announce that all four sessions on J.R.R. Tolkien I proposed for the International Medieval Congress at Leeds 2017 have been accepted! This will be the third consecutive year of papers on J.R.R. Tolkien at IMC Leeds, after a successful series of sessions in 2015 and 2016. Leeds is, indeed, a Tolkien-related location, and it is very fitting that his work will be explored in this prestigious conference. I am looking forward to a series of brilliant sessions and papers from well-established Tolkien scholars, alongside new voices and perspectives!

Here are the sessions titles, abstracts, papers, speakers and times:


Session 242: J. R. R. Tolkien: Medieval Roots and Modern Branches

Session Time: Mon. 03 July – 14.15-15.45

Organiser: Dimitra Fimi
Moderator: Andrew Higgins

Session Abstract:

This session will address aspects of Tolkien’s medievalism. Yvette Kisor examines the frequent use    of the word ‘knight’ in Tolkien’s translation of Beowulf, especially to translate a range of Old English terms. Anahit Behrooz addresses the complexities of orality and frame narratives in the earliest version of Tolkien’s mythology, The Book of Lost Tales. Anahit Behrooz addresses Tolkien’s cartography as a liminal space between medieval mapmaking and modern practices. Aurélie Brémont discusses the transformations of the Corrigan, from Breton folklore to Tolkien’s The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun. Victoria Holtz-Wodzak considers the ways in which medieval Franciscan theology shaped Tolkien’s portrayal of the natural world.

Paper Titles and Speakers:

Tolkien’s Beowulf: Translating Knights (Yvette Kisor, Ramapo College, New Jersey)

Elvish Ears: Medieval Orality in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Book of Lost Tales Mappa Mundi to Mappa Middle-Earth: Positioning J.R.R. Tolkien’s Cartography between Medieval and Modern Practices (Anahit Behrooz, University of Edinburgh)

Tales of the Corrigan: From Folklore to Nationalist Reinvention (Aurélie Brémont, Université Paris IV – Sorbonne)

Treebeard’s Priesthood and the Franciscan Sanctity of Tolkien’s Natural World (Victoria Holtz-Wodzak, Viterbo University)

IMC 2017 Session Link

Session 342: ‘New’ Tolkien: Expanding the Canon

Session Time: Mon. 03 July – 16.30-18.00

Organiser: Dimitra Fimi
Moderator: Dimitra Fimi

Session Abstract:

This session will focus on ‘new’ works by J. R. R. Tolkien: creative works published posthumously during the last few years. Participants will examine all or a selection of the following works: The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún (2009), The Fall of Arthur (2013), The Story of Kullervo (2015), A Secret Vice (2016) and The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun (2016). Verlyn Flieger will examine the complex ways in which Tolkien’s creative adaptation of medieval literature shaped some of his best-known fictional characters. Brad Eden will focus on Tolkien’s use of the liminal forest in terms of setting, language and characterization. Kristine Larsen will concentrate on medieval lunar symbolism in the representation of female characters, and Andrew Higgins will explore the use of the Indo-European model and Tolkien’s expertise in philology in the development of Tolkien’s invented languages.

Paper Titles and Speakers:

Tolkien, Tradition, and the Individual Talent (Verlyn Flieger, University of Maryland)

Mirkwood as Otherness: ‘New’ Tolkien and the Liminal Forest (Brad Eden, Valparaiso University)

Magic, Matrimony, and the Moon: Medieval Lunar Symbolism in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun and The Fall of Arthur (Kristine Larsen, Central Connecticut State University)

A Secret Vice, the 1930’s and the Growth of Tolkien’s ‘Tree of Tongues’ (Andrew Higgins, Independent Scholar)

IMC 2017 Session Link

Session 442: The Road Goes Ever On: The Future of Tolkien Scholarship – A Round Table Discussion

Session Time: Mon. 03 July – 19.00-20.00

Organiser: Dimitra Fimi
Chair: Carl Phelpstead

Round Table Abstract:

Tolkien’s legendarium has often been approached by scholarship via the lens of medievalism. Scholars have been long interested in Tolkien’s medieval intertexts (e.g. Old and Middle English works such as Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight) and such studies have established a clear view of Middle-earth as a world that engages with the heroic code, material culture, philosophical, and theological concepts, as well as fantastical beings, from the literature of the European Middle Ages. However, a more recent trend is to examine Tolkien’s work in terms of its engagement with the cultural moment(s) it was created, spanning six decades of literary and cultural history. Where is Tolkien scholarship heading? Should we move away from ‘Tolkien the medievalist’ and focus more on Tolkien as 20th-century author? And what about recent developments in literary theory? This round table discussion will debate the complexities of such questions and will interrogate scholarly practices and expectations in Tolkien Studies.


Brad Eden (Valparaiso University)

Dimitra Fimi (Cardiff Metropolitan University)

Verlyn Flieger (University of Maryland)

Thomas Honegger (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität)

Michael Wodzak (Viterbo University)

IMC 2017 Session Link

Session 1019: Otherness in Tolkien’s Medievalism

Session Time: Wed. 05 July – 09.00-10.30

Organiser: Dimitra Fimi
Moderator:  Kristine Larsen

Session Abstract:

This session explores various aspects of the construction and role of the ‘other’ in J.R.R. Tolkien’s medievalism. Irina Metzler surveys the representation of disability in Tolkien’s mythology and its medieval analogies and constructions. Thomas Honegger focuses on Tolkien’s critique of chivalry in his medieval scholarship but also in his construction of the ‘other’ Middle Ages in his creative work. Sara Brown addresses an important figure of medieval literature and legend, the Dwarf, focusing on the ‘othering’ of female Dwarves by their very absence. Gaëlle Abaléa interrogates the world of the Dead as ‘other’ in Tolkien’s legendarium, examining its boundaries, and its relation to Faerie.

Paper Titles and Speakers:

Disability in Tolkien’s Texts: Medieval ‘Otherness’? (Irina Metzler, Swansea University)

Tolkien’s Other Middle Ages (Thomas Honegger, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität)

The Invisible Other: Tolkien’s Dwarf-Women and the ‘Feminine Lack’ (Sara Brown, Rydal Penrhos School)

Our World, the Other World, and Those In-Between: Community with and Separation from the Dead in Tolkien’s Work (Gaëlle Abaléa, Université Paris IV – Sorbonne)

IMC 2017 Session Link

Tolkien and the Welsh language (and other news)

I had hoped to post more often on this blog, but this term has been unusually busy. There have been a lot of great opportunities and many exciting projects are in the pipeline, but time has flown and here we are, just before Christmas, with no blog post since the summer! I’ve been more active on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn – the necessity for brevity required in social media has helped! Here’s a quick catch-up, then, and some thoughts and musings on my research and other activities this term.

Tolkien and WWI 1

Interviewed by John Rhys-Davies for the BBC iWonder Guide on Tolkien and World War I


First of all, I was delighted to work with the BBC last summer to film two iWonder online guides on J.R.R. Tolkien. The first one, released in September, was on Tolkien’s experience of World War I and how it may have influenced The Lord of the Rings. I was interviewed by John Rhys-Davies (who played Gimli in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy) about whether The Lord of the Rings can be considered as an allegory of WWI. This short video forms Part 5 of the iWonder guide, which was one of a series of similar online guides produced to commemorate the centenary of WWI.

How was The Lord of the Rings influenced by World War One?


Tolkien and Wales 2

Presenting the BBC iWonder guide on Tolkien and the Welsh language

The second guide, which I presented, was filmed last July in a number of locations in Wales. Fittingly it focuses on Tolkien and the Welsh language – his love of Welsh, his use of Welsh in the construction of Sindarin (one of the languages of the Elves), and the Welsh place-names in the Shire. This iWonder guide has just been released today and I am thrilled with how it’s has all come together! Readers who may want to know more about Tolkien’s ‘Celtic’ inspirations (Welsh and Irish) can access my articles under Publications.

Why do the Elves in The Hobbit sound Welsh?


During the last few months I also reviewed two of Tolkien’s recently published books (well, one and a third, to be precise!). The first is a review of Tolkien’s The Fall of Arthur (2013) for Gramarye: The Journal of the Sussex Centre for Folklore, Fairy Tales and Fantasy. My review is aimed at both Tolkien specialists as well as scholars in the more general fields of fantasy literature, folklore, etc. The second is part of a joint review by a number of Tolkien scholars of Tolkien’s Beowulf translation (2014). My bit is a review of “Sellic Spell”, Tolkien’s attempt to ‘reconstruct’ the Anglo-Saxon folktale that may have inspired motifs and the wondrous elements in Beowulf. This collective review will be published soon in Mallorn, the journal of the Tolkien Society.

Last but not least, I also contributed a piece to The Conversation, an independent source of news and views sourced from the academic and research community. My article was titled: “Enid Blyton’s The Faraway Tree to hit the screen in latest bid to aim fantasy at grown-ups” and offered views on the recent success of cinematic adaptations of classic children’s fantasy.


On Hobbits and Poetry: Musings on Newly Published Letters by Tolkien

Tolkien scholars and fans alike have been extremely lucky to have witnessed a flurry of recent publications of Tolkien’s works such as The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún (2009), The Fall of Arthur (2013) and Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary, together with Sellic Spell (2014), all edited by Tolkien’s son and literary executor, Christopher Tolkien. When such new Tolkien material gets published I am usually in the midst of a hectic term, often teaching Tolkien or authoring articles and essays on Tolkien. I tend to read everything as soon as it comes out, but that read has to be quick and quite intense. Being on holiday means that I am able to devote new Tolkien material a much more leisurely and reflective (re)read, so yesterday I spent some time revisiting letters written by Tolkien that have appeared in print for the first time during the last couple of years. In particular, this post has been prompted by two separate publications: a chapter in an edited collection published in Finland last year; and an article in a creative writing magazine published in the UK only a month ago:

  • Coston, Paula (2014) ‘Tolkien on writing… and me’, Writing Magazine, August 2014, pp. 12-14.

32567In their essay, Alaric Hall and Samuli Kaislaniemi present for the first time an edition of Tolkien’s 1937 letter to the celebrated Swallows and Amazons author, Arthur Ransome, in its entirety. Extracts from the letter have appeared before, most recently in John D. Rateliff’s The History of the Hobbit, but the essay by Hall and Kaislaniemi gives the full text of Ransome’s letter and Tolkien’s reply and includes a detailed consideration of the background of their correspondence. The essay also offers extensive commentary on the significance of Tolkien’s letter in placing The Hobbit within the context of the extended legendarium. What stayed with me was Tolkien’s claim that it wasn’t appropriate for hobbits and Men to be referred to as ‘mortals’ in the book, because – among other things – the word was ‘too puckish’. Hall and Kaislaniemi speculate that Tolkien may have used ‘puckish’, and hence ‘mortal’, as a term of derision, linked with Puck’s famous exclamation ‘Lord, what fools these mortals be!’ in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. But I am wondering whether Tolkien refers to another Puck here, from an early 20th-century children’s fantasy, Kipling’s Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906). I have been working for a while on Kipling and Tolkien and the affinities of their fantasy writings, and have presented papers at ‘Tolkien at Kalamazoo’ and Oxonmoot on my research so far (see under Presentations) which I am hoping to write up for publication soon. What Tolkien’s remark brought to my mind is this interchange between Puck, the oldest of fairies, and Dan and Una, the two child protagonists of Puck of Pook’s Hill:

‘Ah, but you’re a fairy,’ said Dan.
‘Have you ever heard me say that word yet?’ said Puck quickly.
‘No. You talk about “the People of the Hills”, but you never say “fairies”,’ said Una. ‘I was wondering at that. Don’t you like it?’
‘How would you like to be called “mortal” or “human being” all the time?’ said Puck; ‘or “son of Adam” or “daughter of Eve”?’
‘I shouldn’t like it at all,’ said Dan. ‘That’s how the Djinns and Afrits talk in the Arabian Nights.
‘And that’s how I feel about saying – that word that I don’t say. Besides, what you call them are made-up things the People of the Hills have never heard of – little buzzflies with butterfly wings and gauze petticoats, and shiny stars in their hair, and a wand like a schoolteacher’s cane for punishing bad boys and rewarding good ones. I know ’em!’
‘We don’t mean that sort,’ said Dan. ‘We hate ’em too.’

In this respect, I think Hall and Kaislaniemi are completely right to link Tolkien’s terms ‘puckish’ and ‘mortals’ with ‘On Fairy-Stories’ and the distaste Tolkien expressed in this essay for ‘flower-fairies and fluttering sprites with antennae’, though for me the link comes through Kipling’s, rather than Shakespeare’s, Puck. This much-quoted Tolkienian phrase strongly echoes Kipling’s words above especially as Tolkien continues: ‘that I so disliked as a child, and which my children in their turn detested’.

New PictureIn ‘Tolkien on writing… and me’, Paula Coston talks of her correspondence with Tolkien. Coston’s grandparents lived next to the Tolkiens in Oxford and she exchanged letters with Tolkien when she was an 11-year-old aspiring poet. In this article, Coston prints extracts from Tolkien’s letters to her, in which he offers some insightful words of advice on verse, rhyming and the power of language (especially the significance of the adjective, a point Tolkien also makes in ‘On Fairy-Stories’). It is really moving to read the sincere and considerate words of a man who was already becoming something of a ‘legend’, addressed to a young girl in response to her budding poetic efforts. What struck me in this article were Tolkien’s words on the rules of (formal) verse, which, Coston says, were memorable due to Tolkien using ‘a humorous tennis analogy’:

Verse is… in many ways like games… The net is just a nuisance; the white lines are silly and unreasonable: all they do is to make some lovely hard hits count as ‘out’. But without them? I suppose you could just swipe the ball where you felt inclined… But actually the most beautiful, graceful and determined strokes are made by those who have learned to obey the rules and still hit the ball with force.

A lovely analogy indeed, but not Tolkien’s own: here, Tolkien actually plays on a well-known and very quotable line by Robert Frost: ‘Writing free verse is like playing tennis with the net down’. Frost, like Tolkien, was a great believer in formal poetry and its adherence to metre, rhythm, and other sound effects (including rhyming) and many of his poems are memorable because of the masterful way he combines form and content. Frosts’s quote dismisses ‘free verse’ as poetry without any rules (an overgeneralization, to make a point) and Tolkien builds on that to describe the sort of (formal) poetry he liked to write: alliterative verse, rhyming couplets, and numerous poems with complex rhyming schemes, unusual metres, etc.


Coston, Paula (2014) ‘Tolkien on writing… and me’, Writing Magazine, August 2014, pp. 12-14.

Frost, Robert (1935) Address to Milton Academy. [Public Lecture, Milton Academy, Massachusetts]. 17 May.

Hall, Alaric and Kaislaniemi, Samuli (2013) ‘“You tempt me grievously to a mythological essay”: J. R. R. Tolkien’s correspondence with Arthur Ransome”, pp. 261-80 in Tyrkkö, J., Timofeeva, O., and Salenius, M. (eds) Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique XC. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.

Kipling, Rudyard (1906) Puck of Pook’s Hill. London: Macmillan & Co.

Tolkien, J.R.R. (1983) The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, edited by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin.